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Kiếm tiền tỷ nhờ trồng bơ sáp ở Bình Phước
08-06-2015, 11:27 AM
Bài viết: #1
Kiếm tiền tỷ nhờ trồng bơ sáp ở Bình Phước
Ghép và trồng thành công giống bơ sáp cao sản, ông Dương Mã Dưỡng ở Bù Gia Mập, Bình Phước thu về hơn 3 tỷ đồng mỗi năm.
Chuyện trồng bơ của ông Dưỡng cũng rất tình cờ khi được người bạn tặng một chậu quýt giống để trồng cách đây hơn 20 năm. Không biết lấy gì để đáp lễ, ông chọn mua một cây bơ và trái để tặng lại. Người bạn hỏi ông bơ ngon vậy sao không trồng và ghép giống để bán, nhưng ông Dưỡng nghĩ có ghép giống cũng không ai mua vì thời đó chưa nhiều người biết đến loại trái này.

Năm 1995, khi vườn cà phê và tiêu ở Bà Rịa - Vũng Tàu đã trưởng thành, ông Dưỡng bắt đầu nghĩ đến việc trồng bơ nên ra chợ mua thử 100 cây giống về trồng. Cũng không chăm sóc và hy vọng gì nhiều, nhưng sau ba năm những cây giống đầu tiên này lại cho năng suất rất cao.

Thấy cây bơ mẹ cho trái to và đẹp, ông Dưỡng quyết định đầu tư trồng lớn, kết hợp với ghép cây giống để bán và xây dựng thương hiệu bơ Mã Dưỡng.

“Khi đó, nông dân nơi đây chưa tin tưởng giống bơ này, vẫn ưu tiên phát triển  nông sản khô như cà phê, tiêu, điều, vì thu hoạch xong có thể phơi khô và bán lúc nào cũng được. Còn riêng với trái bơ khi vào mùa, trái chín không ai mua thì chỉ có đổ cho heo, bò ăn thôi”, ông Dưỡng chia sẻ.

[Hình: bo-2a-9481-1438569691.jpg]


Ông Dương Mã Dưỡng nhận giải thưởng Gương mặt nhà quản lý tài năng trong thời kỳ hội nhập kinh tế.




Ban đầu, ông Dưỡng tìm hiểu cách ghép trên mạng nhưng chỉ dẫn này quá chung chung, tỷ lệ cây sống sót thấp nên ông quyết định qua Thái Lan để học. Nông dân này cho biết, lúc đầu cứ lấy bo (mầm của cây mẹ) để ghép, tỷ lệ cây con sống rất thấp. Sau này có học hành bài bản rồi, ông mới biết cách lấy bo ra sao, chọn mắt nào ghép để tăng tỷ lệ sống cho cây con...

Ghép giống bơ quan trọng nhất là học hỏi kinh nghiệm từ chính những người nông dân đã ghép thành công, kết hợp học thêm ở các kỹ sư nông nghiệp. Ông Dưỡng cho biết, hiện nay tỷ lệ ghép thành công của ông đạt 97%. “Để cho ra được cây giống tốt, cây mẹ khi ghép phải có năng suất cao, độ tuổi một năm, thường có lá già và ngọn chuẩn bị phóng đọt lá lần thứ hai, không được bỏ phân trước đó một tháng”, ông Dưỡng chia sẻ kinh nghiệm và cho biết thêm, trong khi giống bơ bán ngoài thị trường đa số cho ra hoa đơn tính, chủ yếu là hoa đực nên tỷ lệ thụ phấn rất thấp, thì cơ sở của ông lại cung cấp được bơ giống cho ra hoa lưỡng tính, tỷ lệ thụ phấn cao, đặc biệt trong những ngày mưa. Hiện mỗi năm cơ sở của ông bán được trung bình 10.000 cây bơ giống, giá bán 50.000 đồng một cây, thu về trên 500 triệu.

Thấy cây bơ cho doanh thu tốt, năm 2010, khi 7 ha tiêu ở Bù Gia Mập, Bình Phước liên tục mất giá, ông Dưỡng quyết định chuyển qua trồng chuyên canh bơ. Sau 5 năm, hiện mỗi năm ông thu 50 tấn bơ, một cây đạt trung bình 1,3 tạ, mỗi trái nặng từ 700gram đến 1kg, doanh thu hơn 2 tỷ đồng.

Chia sẻ kỹ thuật trồng bơ trái, ông Dưỡng cho biết thường xuyên bón lót, cắt bớt những trái ở chùm nhiều, mỗi chùm chỉ nên để dưới 10 trái. Ngoài ra, ông chuyển dần sang trồng theo tiêu chí xanh khi chỉ dùng phân hữu cơ và thuốc sinh học để chăm sóc. Ông mua phân gà, phân bò kết hợp với bã cà phê, men phân hủy cấy chế phẩm sinh học trichoderma và ủ trong vòng 45 ngày.

Ở Bình Phước, nền nhiệt cao, thích hợp cho việc trồng các loại cây trái nhiệt đới. Nhưng nắng gay gắt khiến trái bơ thường bị nám. Vì thế, ông Dưỡng phải tưới nhiều nước và sử dụng những loại thuốc sinh học để phòng tránh bơ bị nám ngay từ lúc trái còn nhỏ. “Thuốc thuốc trừ sâu sinh học ít độc với người và môi trường, không làm hại đến các sinh vật có lợi cho cây trồng”, ông nói.

Giải thích chuyện thị trường bơ trong nước rất dồi dào, nhưng giá trị đem lại không cao, ông Dưỡng cho rằng nông dân nhiều nơi vì ham lợi nhuận nên thường cắt bơ sớm bán để có giá cao, vô hình trung đã làm giảm đi chất lượng sản phẩm. Để có bơ chín ngon, 4 tháng sau khi ra trái mới nên thu hoạch, và chỉ thu hoạch những trái màu ngả về hơi vàng, da bắt đầu già hơn.

Vì được trồng theo phương pháp xanh, sản phẩm bơ Mã Dưỡng hiện được  bán với giá khá cao 60.000 đồng một kg, trong khi giá bơ trên thị trường dao động ở mức 35.000 - 40.000 đồng. Ông Dưỡng cho biết mình chỉ tập trung hướng đến tiếp thị sản phẩm tại vườn, để khách hàng mắt thấy, tai nghe, và thưởng thức thử bơ trước khi mua. Do đó, dù trồng ở phía Nam, nhưng Hà Nội hiện là thị trường tiêu thụ bơ lớn nhất của trang trại ông Dưỡng.

Ngoài cây bơ, hiện ông Dương Mã Dưỡng còn phát triển thêm dự án trồng xen canh giữa bơ cao sản và na Thái để lấy ngắn nuôi dài. Na Thái rất dẻo, ngọt, hạt nhỏ, vỏ mỏng và không có cát, đem lại hiệu quả kinh tế cao. Mỗi trái na Thái đạt trung bình 800gram - 1kg với giá bán 85.000 đồng một kg. Mỗi ha trồng xen canh na Thái có thể thu về từ 700 triệu đến một tỷ một năm.
theo Diễm Phạm (VnExpress.net)


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